V. Nimitha*, M. Venkataswamy*, P. Vaishnavi, M. Sai Manisha, V. Swathi, R. Saritha
Vishnu Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Vishnupur,
Narsapur, Medak District– 502313, Telangana, India
Parkinsonism is single of the regular neurodegenerative diseases, which is distinguished through a discriminating and advancement deterioration of dopaminergic neurons, root a sequence of sign which might finally persuade automatic cell demise, although the etiology of parkinsonism ruins unknown, current studies have optional that oxidative stress(OS), generate apoptosis which results in mitochondrial defects, neuroinflammation may also play important roles in its pathogenesis.Various agents as 6-Hydroxydopomine(6-OHDA), 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, Rotenone a neurotoxin commonly and many more are used in models of PD, induces selective catecholaminergic cell death, mediated by reactive oxygen species(ROS) and mitochondrial defects.
Parkinsonism describes a syndrome of Parkinson’s disease (PD) it is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantianigra pars compacta in the ventral midbrain. The loss of dopaminergic neurons, leads to the reduction of dopamine being released into a striatum. These processes are responsible for the clinical features of PD including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and difficulty in initiating movements. Mutations in the parkin gene have been associated with familial PD2,3. The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in industrialized countries is estimated at 0.3% of the general population and about 1% of the population older than age 60 years. People of all ethnic origins can be disorder. In 1817 James Parkinson first described as paralysis agitansor shaking palsy, the term “Parkinson’s disease” being coined later by Jean-Martin Charcot in 19th century.
These polymers used for changed unleash changed unleash systems  square measure designed to cut back the frequency of dosing by modifying the speed of drug absorption has been out there from a few years. This sort of unleash dose  forms is way higher than the standard unleash dosage forms. Mucoadhesive  square measure artificial or natural polymers that may move with the mucous secretion layer that is gift within the body at cavity, and stomachal membrane layers. Antibiotics  will be used for preparation of tablets. The particular approach to their use relies on the people affected and stage of the sickness. Researchers  square measure developing custom-built pico particles the dimensions of molecules which will deliver medicine on to pathologic cells in your body. Antibiotics  also are wont to treat this sickness. Oral modified  drug delivery systems will be classified in to 2 broad teams Single Unit dose forms and multiple unit dose forms. The advances  and progress created by pharmaceutical business have greatly contributed in terms of treatment of sickness, thereby enhancing the standard of life. Mucilage and Gums square measure deliquescent polysaccharides .
A huge number of herbal medicine i.e herbs, formulations have been reported for their effective action in prevention and treatment of parkinsonism. Most literatures have been focusedon the antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis herb such as Thujaorientalis, Mucunapruriens, Ginkgo biloba, plumbagoscandens and various other ayurvedic, chinese plants. The many constituents present in these plants used against parkinsonism are Dopamine, flavonoids, alkanoids, other polyphenols. One should have closer look towards pharmacological and phytochemical constituents of this herbs, which can be useful for preparation of formulation.
Treatment using synthetic drugs includes:
The extract of withaniasomnifera root is used in parkinsonism. The extract at the dose of 100mg\kg shows significant improvement in motor neurons function, catecholamines, potential antioxidant levels and prevent lipid peroxidation ie. Reduced elevated levela of TBARS .
It is a MAO inhibitor that is selective for MAO-B, inhibition of MAO-B protects dopamine from intraneuronal degradation, thus decreases the metabolism of dopamine and has been found to increases dopamine levels in the brain and was initially used as an adjunct to the levodopa.
It is the first line treatment for parkinsonism, is a metabolic precursor of dopamine that is decarboxylated to dopamine within the presynaptic terminals of dopaminergenic neurons in the stratium, responsible for the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug in the parkinson’s disease, peak concentrations of the levopoda in plasma between 0.5 to 2 hours after an oral dose with half-life of 1 to 3 hours it is combined with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, either carbidopa or benserazide, which diminishes the peripheral side effects and also combined with plus dopa decarboxylase inhibitor entacapone to inhibit its degradation, About 80% of patients show initial improvement with levopoda, particularly of rigidity, hypokinesia, tremor and bradykinesia, and about 20% are resorted virtually to normal motor function.
Benzotropine, trihexyphenidyl, procycclidine and bipriden interfere with this inhibitory effect on dopaminergic nerve treminals, suppression of which compensates for a lack of dopamneby muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
The crude ethanolic extractand total acetate fraction of plumbagoscandness decrease locomotor activity, the presence of catalepsy and palpebral ptosis, thus acts against parkinsonism.
The beneficial effects of standard crude extract of Ginkgo biloba in parkinsonism. The locomotor deficits were resorted, causes increase in the content of GSH and decreases in the extent of lipid peroxidation. Ginkgo biloba appears to act via antioxidant, free radical scavenging, MAO-B-inhibiting, and DA-enhancing mechanisms that rescue the compromised cells within the dopaminergic lesions.
There are currently a few plant-derived drugs approved for clinical use. This is largely because most herbal medicines are complex mixtures of chemical components and have diverse biological and pharmacological actions. The information collected in this review on a large number of herbal extracts and constituents that possess therapeutic effects on animal models of parkinsonism may be used in a search for novel pharmacotherapies from medicinal plants for these disorder. The herbal constituents for whom behavioral effects and pharmacological properties have been well characterized may be good candidates for further investigations that may ultimately result in clinical use. Considering the limitations of the available conventional pharmacotherapeutic agents for parkinsonism, particularly the treatment refractoriness, high relapse rates and diverse adverse side effects that occur with long-term treatments, herbal remedies may provide an alternative for patients, especially for those with lingering conditions and intolerance to adverse effects.
1. Viswanadham Manasa, K. Vanitha, M. Venkataswamy, P. Prabhakar, Alluri Ramesh “Formulation and Evaluation of Aqueous Enteric Coated Delayed Release Omeprazole Pellets” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology, A and V publications, 8(1): January-March, 2016, (1-4).
2. K. Vyshnavi, Madhuri Bhashetty, Namitha Swain, M. Venkataswamy, Alluri Ramesh “Evaluation of Prepared Aspirin Modified Release Tablets with Polymer Isolated from Fresh Mosambi Leaves” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology, A and V publications, 9(2): April- June, 2017.
3. M.Venkataswamy, Arul B, Keerthi Sagar A, Dinesh Mohan S, Vanitha K, Ramesh Alluri “Preparation and Evaluation of a Mucoadhesive Polymer from the Extract of Seeds of Annona squamosa Linn” Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci., A and V publications, 2017; Vol. 7: Issue 3.
4. Chiluveri Sanjuna, Pindrathi Pravalika, Chikoti Sneha Priya, M. Venkataswamy, Alluri Ramesh. The Insidious Disease from Insects: Lyme Disease. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. A and V publications 2018; 10(1): 17-22.
5. K. Prathyusha, Jaggareddy Gari Manasa Reddy, M. Venkataswamy, Alluri Ramesh “Pico technology: Instruments used and Applications in pharmaceutical field” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology, A and V Publications, 10(1): January- March, 2018, (34-41).
6. Jaggareddy Gari Manasa Reddy, K. Prathyusha, M. Venkataswamy, Alluri Ramesh, “Spreading of Swine flu disease: Past and Present” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology, A and V publications, 10(2): April- June, 2018.
7. K. Vanitha. M. Venkataswamy, Sanam Niharika, Alluri Ramesh. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Mebeverine extended release Pellets. Asian J. Pharm. Tech. A and V publications, 2018; 8 (2):71-77.
8. M. Venkataswamy, M. Santhoshini, J. P. Priyanka, K. Prathyusha, Jaggareddy Gari Manasareddy and Ramesh Alluri “preparation and evaluation of biphasic bilayered buccal tablet containing ketorolac immediate release layer and domperidone maleate sustained release layer” World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 7, Issue 11, 905-949.
9. M.Venkataswamy, S. Naveen Kumar, B. Ramesh, G. Anantha Ramulu, M. Bharath, K. Sridivya Goud “Preparation and Evaluation of Mucilage from Fresh Leaves of Psidium Guajava” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology, A and V publications, 10(3): July- September, 2018.
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Received on 15.10.2018 Modified on 20.11.2018
Accepted on 16.12.2018 ©A&V Publications All right reserved